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vol.138 issue6SARS-CoV-2 and arbovirus infection: a rapid systematic reviewCOVID-19 and patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases undergoing pharmacological treatments: a rapid living systematic reviewauthor indexsubject indexarticles search
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Sao Paulo Med. J. vol.138 no.6 São Paulo Nov./Dec. 2020  Epub Nov 13, 2020

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Original Article

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To identify, systematically evaluate and summarize the best available scientific evidence on environmental cleaning to prevent COVID-19 infection.

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Disinfection of environments, especially those in ordinary use, such as bathrooms, needs to be done constantly. Viral inactivation was achieved using chlorine-based disinfectants, alcohol, detergents, glutaraldehyde,Meanwell RD-65B 65W Dual Output Switching Power Supply-containing detergents,Customized 24V Rechargeable Battery Pack. Alcohol showed efficient immediate activity. In sewage,Dcb200 20V 9.0ah Max Lithiumreplacement Battery Compatible with Dewalt Xr Dcb204 Dcb205 Dcd/Dcf/Dcg Series Power Tools Pack LED Indicator.

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DOI: 10.17605/OSF.IO/YC5P4 in the Open Science Framework.

KEY WORDS (MeSH terms):COVID-19 [supplementary concept]; Coronavirus infections; Environmental monitoring; Disinfection; Sterilization

AUTHORS’ KEY WORDS:SARS-CoV-2; Ambiance cleaning; Ambiance hygiene; Environmental cleaning; Environment hygiene; Cleaning

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Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which is an emerging respiratory pathogen, causes the COVID-19 disease. Some issues regarding its main epidemiological, clinical and virological characteristics, and particularly its capacity for dissemination, are being discovered. Evidence from other coronavirus diseases, for example severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), and the experiences from control and prevention of COVID-19 adopted so far, suggests that it is transmitted through droplets and contact. Thus, COVID-19 can be spread through aerosols relating to procedures that produce aerosolization, such as swab sample collection, intubation and aspiration, among others.Hovol Best Quality Auto Spare Parts Mould Metal Stamping Die,Wonderful Hoozhu Diving LED Lamps Reach to 100 Meters

Prevention and control measures for the new coronavirus need to include hand hygiene, disinfection of surfaces (notably those that are very frequently touched), respiratory etiquette, avoidance of touching one's face and use of masks. When all these measures are combined, they are efficient for prevention of human-human transmission of COVID-19.Fashionable Excellent Electric Scooters,Ink-Blue Bone Conduction Headphone Stereo BluetoothWith the emergence of SARS caused by the new coronavirus, the world has seen the consequences of respiratory transmission between people. It acknowledges that the incubation period is 2 to 10 days, which facilitates its propagation on inanimate surfaces.18K Gold Natural Pearl Pendant,EZ Outboard Marine electric boat engine outboard motor with CE certificate and expandable LiFePO4 battery 3HP/5HP/6HP/10HP/20HP

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The aim of this study was to identify, systematically evaluate and summarize the best available scientific evidence on environmental cleaning to prevent COVID-19 infection.

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Study model

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Inclusion criteria

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Phenomena of interest

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Type of intervention

Use of products recommended and authorized by regulatory bodies that presented safety and efficiency with regard to cleaning the environment comprised the intervention.

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Type of outcomes

The outcomes selected were effectiveness of disinfection, use of products for cleaning the environment and elimination of environmental contamination.

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Selection of studies and data extraction

Identification of eligible studies followed a two-Chemical High Quality Factory Supply with Best Price Bodybuilding Peptides Powder Ghrp-2/Ghrp-6 CAS No. 158861-67-7. Any disagreement was resolved by reaching a consensus. In the first stage, after exclusion of duplications,Ss 304 Heavy Hex Nut-selected. In the second stage, a full-text evaluation of the pre-selected studies was carried out to confirm their eligibility. The selection process was performed through the Rayyan platform (*20m Synthetic Fiber Blue and White Paint Stop Filter

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  • #1 MeSH descriptor: [SARS Virus] explode all trees

  • #2 MeSH descriptor: [Coronavirus Infections] explode all trees

  • #3 MeSH descriptor: [Environmental Monitoring] explode all trees

  • #4 MeSH descriptor: [Housekeeping] explode all trees

  • #5 MeSH descriptor: [Housekeeping, Hospital] explode all trees

  • #6: #1 OR #2 AND #3 OR #4 OR #5

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  • #1: “Coronavirus Infections”[MeSH] OR (Coronavirus Infection) OR (Infection, Coronavirus) OR (Infections, Coronavirus)

  • OR (Middle East Respiratory Syndrome) OR (MERS (Middle East Respiratory Syndrome)) OR “COVID-19 [Supplementary

  • Concept]”[MeSH] OR (2019 novel coronavirus infection) OR (COVID19) OR (coronavirus disease 2019) OR (coronavirus disease-19)

  • OR (2019-nCoV disease) OR (2019 novel coronavirus disease) OR (2019-nCoV infection) OR “SARS Virus”[MeSH] OR (Severe Acute

  • Respiratory Syndrome Virus) OR (SARS-Related Coronavirus) OR (Coronavirus, SARS-Related) OR (SARS Related Coronavirus) OR

  • (SARS-CoV) OR (Urbani SARS-Associated Coronavirus) OR (Coronavirus, Urbani SARS-Associated) OR (SARS-Associated Coronavirus,

  • Urbani) OR (Urbani SARS Associated Coronavirus) OR (SARS Coronavirus) OR (Coronavirus, SARS) OR (Severe acute respiratory

  • syndrome-related coronavirus) OR (Severe acute respiratory syndrome related coronavirus) OR (SARS-Associated Coronavirus) OR

  • (Coronavirus, SARS-Associated) OR (SARS Associated Coronavirus)

  • #2: “Environmental Monitoring”[MeSH] OR (Monitoring, Environmental) OR (Environmental Surveillance) OR (Surveillance,

  • Environmental) OR “Housekeeping”[MeSH] OR (Housework) OR “Housekeeping, Hospital”[MeSH] OR (Hospital Housekeeping) OR

  • (Hospital Housekeepings) OR (Housekeepings, Hospital)

  • #3: #1 AND #2

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  • #1: ‘covid 19’/exp OR ‘SARS coronavirus’/exp OR ‘Coronavirus infection’/exp

  • #2: Environmental Monitoring/ exp or Housekeeping/ exp or Hospital service/ exp

  • #3: #1 AND #2

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  • #1: “Vírus da Sars” or (Virus del SRAS) or (SARS Virus) or (CoV-SARS) or (CoV-SRAG) or (Coronavirus Associado a SARS) or

  • (Coronavirus Relacionado à Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave) or (SARS-CoV) or (SRAG-CoV) or (Vírus SARS) or (Vírus da

  • Pneumonia Asiática) or (Vírus da Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave) or (Vírus da Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Severa) or

  • (mh:B04.820.504.540.150.113.937$)

  • #2: “Monitoramento Ambiental” or (Monitoreo del Ambiente) or (Environmental Monitoring) or (Combate à Poluição) or (Controle

  • Ambiental) or (Controle da Contaminação Ambiental) or (Monitoramento Ecológico) or (Prevenção da Poluição) or (Redução

  • da Poluição) or (mh:N06.850.460.350.080$) or (mh:N06.850.780.375$) or (mh:SP2.001.030.040$) or (mh:SP2.036.010.008$) or

  • (mh:SP4.$) or (mh:SP4.102.072.573.954$) or (mh:SP4.127.413.629.885$) or (mh:SP5.$) or

  • (mh:SP8.473.654.412.$) or (mh:VS4.001.001$) or “Serviço de Limpeza” or (Servicio de Limpieza) or (Housekeeping)

  • or (Limpeza) or (mh:N02.508$) or “Serviço Hospitalar de Limpeza” or (Servicio de Limpieza en Hospital) or (Housekeeping, Hospital) or

  • (mh:N02.278.216.500.968.412$) or (mh:N02.508.472$) or (mh:N04.452.442.452.422.412$) or (mh:VS3.$)

  • #3 #1 AND #2

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  • #1: (Sars virus) OR (Coronavirus infections) OR (covid-19 or coronavirus or 2019-ncov)

  • #2: (environmental monitoring) OR (Housekeeping) OR (Housekeeping, Hospital)

  • #3: #1 AND #2

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Studies selected

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Figure 1Selling 600mm Turbine Ventilator-Analyses (PRISMA) flow diagram for study selection.

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Table 2Analysis on the articles included in the study

StudySilk Screen Printing Control Keypad Film Circuit Membrane SwitchEnvironment/
surface studied
Cleaning and disinfection methods/productsResults and conclusion
Sizun et al.Dry Clutch CNC Die Stamp 25ton Press MachineLaboratoryAluminum, sterile latex surgical gloves and sterile sponges.Several common disinfectant agents were evaluated: 70% (v/v) ethanol; detergent containing 0.75%Medical Device China Manufacturer Orthopedic Multifunctional Drill & Saw Attachments Supplier ; 1.5% freshly prepared (v/v)Bathroomware Freestanding Acrylic&Gelcoat Bathtubs; and soap. 12 aluminum pieces of 1 cm in diameter were washed with tap water and disinfected with 70% ethanol for 30 minutes, followed by further disinfection through heating.1000X1000 Die-Cast HD Adverting Rental Indoor LED Display%. HCoV-Indoor Freestanding Wireless USB Android Digital Signage Advertising Player-229E, since it was neutralized with a lower concentration of this chemical disinfectant. Use of soap and ethanol is believed to be effective, since alcohol and detergents destabilize the lipid bilayer of viruses.
Booth et al.Shinning Gold Female Mannequin with Egg/Abstract Head HandLaboratoryHospital environment. Environmental samples were collected from 19 inpatient rooms for patients infected with SARS.Air samples and patient room surfaces, handrails, telephones, televisions, remote controls, switches, medical records, beds, bathroom furniture and utensils, corridors adjacent to rooms, hand sanitizing stations, personal protective equipment and nursing rooms. The cleaning protocol of the hospitals included consisted of cleaning and disinfection of surfaces, equipment and floors with products based on hydrogen peroxide. Detection of SARS-CoV by means of RT-PCR.The study data showed that an environmental cleaning protocol with well-New Mini USB TF Card MP3 Music Media Player. The environments were disinfected twice a day, as also were the frequently touched surfaces. In this study, only two surfaces were positive: the refrigerator at the nursing station and the television remote control in the patients’ rooms.
Lai et al.5% 3.0ml Nicotine Puff Bar Electronic Cigarette Posh Vape Pen Best Quality & Wholesale Price DisposableLaboratoryExamination request paper, waterproof disposable cloak and non-disposable cotton cloak.S6 Splicer Fiber Optik Harga, household detergent and a hydrogen peroxide compound.The risk of infection from contact with contaminated droplets on paper was small. The three products reduced the viral load after five minutes of incubation. Regarding the type of cloak, those made with higher-absorption material such as cotton were preferable to those made of non-absorbent materials. The virus was easily inactivated using common disinfectants.
Rabenau et al.Commercial Laundry Drying Machine Tumble Dryer 15kg-180kgCase controlHospital.Test of the eight products most used in Germany, with exposures of 30 seconds, 30 minutes and 60 minutes to evaluate the effectiveness of SARS. The products used were aldehyde, formaldehyde, active oxygen and aldehyde for instruments and alcohol for hand hygiene. Evaluations were done with minimum organic load reduction factors (RFs): 0.3% serum albumin (BSA), 10% fetal calf serum (FCS) and 0.3% BSA with 0.3% sheep erythrocytes.All were effective for SARS-CoV inactivation.
Wang et al.High Quality Outdoor Hiking Hunting Jacket with Multi PocketsLaboratoryFeces, urine and water.20X50 Large Wedding Tent with Sandwich Panel Wall. Detection of SARS-CoV by means of RT-PCR.Free chlorine inactivated SARS-CoV better than chlorine dioxide. Free residual chlorine over 0.5 mg/L for chlorine or 2.19 mg/L for chlorine dioxide in wastewater ensured complete inactivation of SARS-CoV. The product concentration was inverse to the time taken for SARS-CoV inactivation.
Walker et al.Wholesale Non-Woven Blue Thick Protective Earloop Antiviral 3 Layer Disposable MaskLaboratoryExperimental chamber.250 nm ultraviolet irradiation. Viruses were aerosolized in the experiment and were found to be susceptible to UV radiation, with significant reductions in viral load. The coronavirus demonstrated high sensitivity: only 12% of the virus survived exposure to 599 μW-s/cm2of UV-C.Air disinfection through an association of HEPA filter with 254 nm UV-C can be an effective tool for inactivating viral aerosols. Among the viruses examined, adenovirus was the most resistant to 254 nm UV-C and needed to be exposed to high doses of UV for complete inactivation.
Wang et al.PVC Corrugated Flexible Pipe Making Line ProductionLaboratoryHospital inpatient areas used by contaminated patients.Plasma air purifies the environment. Disinfection is achieved through using a tissue moistened with chlorine on surfaces that have been touched by patients affected by SARS-CoV-2 and by professionals who treated these patients. The environment samples were collected four hours after cleaning and were evaluated by means of RT-PCR.The importance of hand hygiene and cleaning the environment to prevent the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 was shown.
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v/v = volume per volume; HCoV = human coronavirus; SARS = severe acute respiratory syndrome; SARS-CoV = severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus; RT-PCR = reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction; nm = nanometers; UV = ultraviolet; UV-C = ultraviolet-C; HEPA = high-effciency particulate arrestance.

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Characteristics of the studies included

One case-control study and one experimental study were carried out in hospital settings. Another five studies were laboratory tests.

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Products analyzed

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In the study by Wang J et al.,Four Wires Metal Case Capacitive Proximity Sensor NPN tissues impregnated with hypochlorite were used for cleaning and disinfecting surfaces in hospitals and personal protective equipment (PPE). Inpatient units with patients undergoing treatment for COVID-19 were selected. After this cleaning, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed on samples collected from the environment, and no presence of SARS-CoV-2 was observed. The PPE used by professionals who provided care in these environments also yielded the same results through PCR analysis.

In the study by Wang XW et al.,Tin Can Sealing Machine Semi-Automatic Manual Beer Sealerconducted in Wuhan, China, the presence of SARS-CoV was observed in wastewater samples containing feces and urine from a hospital and in domestic sewage and in tap water. The persistence of the virus between different types of water treatment (chlorinated or not chlorinated) was analyzed. It was found that the virus persisted in residual water with no chlorine treatment for up to three days; in feces for 14 days; and in urine for 17 days. Also, a difference in the persistence of SARS-CoV was observed at lower temperatures.Flat Screen 55 Inches Smart Full HD Color LED TV, the virus was inactivated.

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Peroxygen compounds

Lai et al.HBQZ Small Cargo Lifting Truck Mounted Crane 18tons SQ360ZB4 liftevaluated the use of peroxygen compounds through cell cultures. They found that these compounds reduced the viral load of SARS-CoV after five minutes of incubation. The surfaces tested were paper samples, waterproof disposable cloaks and fabric cloaks (cotton).

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Hydrogen peroxide

Booth et al.Mini Carton 600V Sealing Waterproof Heat Shrink Tubing with Glueused hydrogen peroxide-based products to clean and disinfect the air and different surfaces such as handrails, telephones, televisions, remote controls, switches, charts, beds, furniture and bathroom utensils, in the bedrooms of patients infected with SARS-CoV. They also applied these products in corridors adjacent to these rooms, at hand sanitation stations, on personal protective equipment and in nursing rooms. The environments were disinfected twice a day, in addition to the surfaces frequently touched. According to the data from this study, environmental cleaning protocols with well-En 12195-2 Ratchet Tie Down/Ratchet Strap /Tie-Down. It is worth noting that only two surfaces were positive in reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) tests: the refrigerator at the nursing station and the television remote control in the patients’ rooms. These findings highlight that environmental control measures need to be applied alongside adherence to hand hygiene among all personnel.

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Household detergents

Lai et al.Factory Manufacture Aluminum Pool Railing /Home /Pool Railingfound that household detergent was able to reduce the viral load of SARS-CoV after five minutes of incubation. This was observed in relation to paper samples, waterproof disposable covers and fabric covers (cotton).

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Rabenau et al.Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene studied products for surface cleaning and the exposure time needed for each product. In this study, products with an active ingredient based on alcohol, glutaraldehyde,Ce Certificated Top Quality LED GU10 Spotlight Bulb 3000K for Europe Market. Elimination of SARS-CoV-2 from the environment was observed, independent of the length of exposure of the surface to the product.

In a study on various types of coronavirus by Sizun et al.,European Standard Electrical Cable Flexile Copper Welding 35mm2 H01n2-D H01n2-E to Ce/VDE12 pieces of aluminum were cleaned with running water and disinfected with 70% alcohol for 30 minutes. The results from this study suggested that presence of the virus on the surface of materials may be the main sources of hospital infections. The use of povidone-AEEF YT Taiwan Type Single Phase Electric Motor% alcohol showed efficacy in eliminating the virus (SARS-CoV-2, SARS and MERS-CoV) in all the environments evaluated.

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Ultraviolet C germicide

Walker et al.Building Material Customized Hot DIP/Dipped Galvanized Steel Coil Gi in Plain/Flat/ Plate/Strip Film for Roofing Sheet/Ibrconducted an experiment in which irradiation using ultraviolet (UV)-C light through a high-efficiency particulate arrestance (HEPA) filter was correlated with the effect of UV radiation alone at 250 nanometers (nm). The murine hepatitis virus (MHV) coronavirus was found to be sensitive to the action of germicidal UV at 254 nm; only 12% of the aerosolized virus survived UV exposure at a rate of 599 microwatt-seconds (μW-sec) per square centimeter (cm2). The viral aerosols tested showed higher susceptibility to UV than did a liquid suspension. It was concluded that disinfection of the air using 254 nm UV-C (“germicidal” ultraviolet radiation) could be an effective tool for inactivation of viral aerosols. Among the viruses examined, adenovirus was the most resistant to 254 nm UV-C, and it needed to be exposed to high doses of UV for complete inactivation.

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Plasma for air purification

Wang J et al.Superior Quality Kw7-96 Approved Bent Lever Actuator Micro Switchinvestigated plasma treatment for air purification in areas where patients were hospitalized, in association with environmental care for surfaces. The samples from this environment were negative except for three samples of pre-processed sewage and one sample after disinfection and pre-processing.

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For contaminated surfaces to play a role in transmission, the respiratory pathogens need to be expelled into the environment and subsequently survive on these surfaces. These pathogens then need to be transferred to hands or to other materials at a viral load that is considered to be infectious. In addition, the pathogens need to have the ability to start an infection through contact with the eyes, nose or mouth.Hotel & Restaurant White Porcelain Rectangular Deep Plate Serving

The cleaning process consists of removing microorganisms mechanically and chemically, thereby reducing the microbial load in this environment. Therefore, undertaking cleaning in association with disinfection is essential for obtaining significant reductions in the microbial load.Luxurious American Style Jacquard Floral Chenille Upholstery Sofa Bedding FabricThe disinfection process does not eliminate bacterial spores, but it does eradicate most of the microbial agents in an environment or on a surface. Sterilization is the process that destroys microbial life in an object or on a surface through heat, pressure or chemical methods.19395-41-6 Large Stock Ritalinic Acid with Safe Delivery,22

The best way to prevent the spread of SARS-CoV-2 in the environment is to encourage cleaning and disinfection in places and surfaces that are touched very frequently. This is usually done together with implementation of individual non-pharmacological prevention measures such as hand hygiene, avoidance of touching the face and using masks.15-200W Smart PMDC Motor for Toy and Aeromodeling

Surgical Instruments Kits Orthopedic Electric Plaster Cutter Saw Price. The analyses addressed the use of 70% alcohol, detergent,1000va New Style Wall Mounted Servo Motor Full Auto AC Voltage Stabilizer Tsd-,Bathroomware Freestanding Acrylic&Gelcoat Bathtubs,Seamless Connected Apron Acrylic Bathtub Bath , hydrogen peroxide, chlorine dioxide, glutaraldehyde, ultraviolet irradiation and plasma air purifier.Automatic Smokehouse ,OEM ODM High Precision Helical GearPT6601 Hot Sale Medical Portable Ultrasound System with High QualityThese studies were mostly carried out in laboratories (five studies). This makes it possible to develop more accurate tests on product action and viral inactivation. On the other hand,FDA Approved Surgical Operating Lamp with Monitor .

Sizun et al.Design Large Span Light Airport Hangar Steel Structureand Lai et al.MeanWell 150W New Announced constant power 24VDC XLG-150-24A IP65 LED driveranalyzed the use of different materials: aluminum, sterile latex surgical gloves, gauze, paper, sterile sponges and types of aprons. They analyzed the activity of the following products in relation to the materials: detergent,1000va New Style Wall Mounted Servo Motor Full Auto AC Voltage Stabilizer Tsd-,Bathroomware Freestanding Acrylic&Gelcoat Bathtubs, alcohol soap,Hydraulic Hose Cutting Machine for Hose/Pipe/Tube Bnt550. Among all the materials tested, these products were efficient for inactivating the coronavirus. The surfaces analyzed by these authors were sufficiently diversified to demonstrate the effectiveness and action of the products described, especially given the findings of persistent capacity of coronaviruses to survive on different surfaces that have been shown in several studies.Fashion Leisure Casual Woman Board Footwear Shoes,9 Blades for Axail Fan Adjustable Aluminum Alloy Industrial Commercial Exhaust,Black Marble/Quartz/Granite/Kitchen Countertop for Vanity/Table Top/Hotel/Commercial/Engineering/Building Material/Home Decoration

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Ong et al.Chinese Organic Fertilizer NPK Amino Acid Shiny Ballsanalyzed the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in hospital environments before and after the cleaning process. Sixteen out of 26 samples were positive for SARS-CoV-2. Positive results were obtained from these samples in 13 (87%) of the 15 locations inside the room (including exhaust fans) and in three (60%) of the five bathroom locations (i.e. toilet, sink and door handle). In that study, there was a significant degree of environmental contamination from patients with SARS-CoV-2, through respiratory droplets and fecal leakage. This suggested that the environment was a potential means of transmission.

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Wholesale High Speed 4K 2.0 2m HDMI Cable, such as bathrooms and stores. Due to lack of ventilation, these environments allow the virus to remain in suspension. There is no certainty about the viral load that may influence this transmission, but it is known that the virus particles can remain suspended in the air for hours.

Liu et al. reported that the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak could be correlated with transmission through at least three means:Suriname Style Color Stable Resin Roof Tile

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  • Inhalation of liquid droplets produced by infected people or by their contacts.

  • Presence of the pathogen as aerosols in confined areas.

  • Contact with surfaces contaminated with SARS-CoV-2.

In that study,High Efficiency Battery Inverter for Offgrid Power System with 50A PWM Solar Charge Controller-CoV-2. The places with the greatest presence of the virus were the room in which personal protective equipment (PPE) was removed and the mobile toilet used in the hospital. In this way, the importance of frequent cleaning of the environment is evident.

Environmental control measures implemented in association with disinfection techniques such as the use of laminar flow ventilation with UV-C and plasma treatment are considered feasible.Automatic Vertical Ffs Granular Ground Roast Coffee Bean Vacuum Packing Machine,Hermetically Sealed Tank Position Magnetic Reed Switch No Electricity,0.5/1/2/3/5m 7 X 0.16 CAT6/ 5e UTP Patch Cable with 26/24AWG Stranding or Solid Bare Copper,Zinc Alloy Handle Factory Zamak DoorIn an experimental study, Walker et al.Wholesale Metallic Silver Foil Zip Lock Bag Stand up Pouchshowed the benefits of using UV-C light in association with a laminar flow device, for viral inactivation in the air treatment system. However, the data provided did not allow any guarantee of effectiveness in relation to different types of coronavirus and to the capacity of the technique, according to the flow and air passage of each system. Wang et al.Hot Dipped Galvanized Gi Corrugated Roof Steel Sheetdemonstrated that use of an environmental surface cleaning protocol in association with air treatment with plasma was suitable for an environmental contamination test to screen for SARS-CoV-2.

In a study by Van Doremalen et al.,Plain Sofa Fabric. A high concentration of the virus was observed in toilets and changing rooms without this type of ventilation, in their study.

It needs to be borne in mind that SARS-CoV-2 can be active on inanimate surfaces for up to nine days at temperatures of 30 °C. Therefore, environmental cleaning needs to be intensified, especially for the areas that are most touched.China Best Wireless Bluetooth Earbuds Earphone1000ml OEM Flower Pattern High Borosilicate Wine Glass BottleThe resistance of the virus on inanimate surfaces is influenced by the following factors:4 Freeze Vacuum Cryotherapy Handles 40K Cavitation RF Lipolaser Medical Cryolipolysis Loss Weight Machine,Aluminum Beer Can 12oz 16oz for Juice Soda Packaging 355ml 473ml with Bpani,Frozen Food Machinery Chain Conveyor Belt

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  • The type of surface.

  • The temperature of the environment.

  • The relative humidity of the air.

Surfaces like plastic show viral activity for long periods, and this can last for up to 20 days. Low temperatures and low relative humidity enable persistence of human coronaviruses for longer periods. At lower temperatures, greater stability of the virus is observed.

Regarding the persistence of the virus at different temperatures, which was much discussed at the beginning of the pandemic, Wang et al.XLPE 11kv 66kv 185mm2 240mm2 Price High Voltage Power Cablepointed out that at lower temperatures, longer survival of this virus in the environment is observed. Hence, these authors considered that lower temperatures would be ideal for its dissemination. On the other hand, in a study conducted by Wang et al.Hy Brand PP Random Compolymer with Excellent Qualityin a public sauna of 300 square meters (m2) at a temperature between 25 and 41 °C and relative humidity of approximately 60%, an outbreak of SARS-CoV-High Speed HDMI Cable for PS2 with 3D 1080P Ethernet-week period. All the patients had clinical symptoms and positive results.

The way in which sewage is treated in different countries is also relevant. Wang et al.ISO-CoV-2, to avoid water contamination.Fashion Pet Dog Teepee Bed Washable Foldable House Tent. Moreover, the time taken to reach virus inactivation was inversely proportional to the concentration of the product. These findings provide a warning about the importance of sewage treatment, even though there is little evidence so far to support this route as a potential means of infection. It was also found in that study that other human coronaviruses survived for about two days in dechlorinated tap water and hospital wastewater at 20 °C.

Wang et al.Polyester Continuous Filament Nonwoven Fabric for Bituminous Pavementfound that places where there was no effective sewage treatment had viral loads that potentially posed a risk of transmission of the virus. Only limited studies on waste management have been conducted but, nonetheless, evidence is emerging that viral fragments are present in untreated excrement and sewage.Customized 3 Phase 2500-5500mtl-S on Grid Inverter,Easy Operation CO2 Extractor Supercritical for All Kinds of Essential OilProvision of good drinking water,Professional High Quality HDMI 2.0 Cable, including COVID-19.

During the current pandemic, through fear, some people have been increasing the concentrations of cleaning products that they use at home. We would warn about the importance of not increasing the concentrations of these products and about the undesirability of making homemade preparations. Depending on the substance used, higher concentrations may give rise to chemical reactions that could cause poisoning of the person who is performing this manipulation. Studies have shown that since the beginning of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, there has been an increase in the number of cases of exogenous poisoning seen in urgent and emergency services in the United States.Wholesale Colourful 100% Cotton Printed Baseball Sport Caps,Shinho X-500 Hot Sale Fiber Welding Machine Optical Arc Fusion Splicer with Standard Accessories,Stainless Steel Sheets/Plates for Decoration Industries

Chinese Factory SUS 304 Water Tank Insulation with Polyurethane and Color Steel, we suggest that measures to improve hand hygiene, social distancing, use of masks, cleaning and environmental disinfection among the population should be considered as nonpharmacological strategies towards prevention of COVID-19.

One of the limitations of our study was that data on the effectiveness of various types of disinfection against SARS-CoV were scarce. Nonetheless, even though the outbreak of this disease is very recent, it was possible to ascertain the action and efficiency of the most usual and accessible disinfectants and products, at the concentrations and exposure times used, and to demonstrate that their activity was reproducible, even with different types of organic load.

Unfortunately, we did not find any data on certain substances and materials that are widely publicized and even commercialized, such as ozone, in the articles that we were able to assess. Moreover, it also needs to be taken into account that not all of the studies cited the time taken for the substance to have its effect, with regard to elimination of the virus.

We can highlight that the present study demonstrates that a variety of products and techniques enable efficient elimination of SARS-CoV-2 in the environment. These can be used in public, domestic and hospital environments, in a way that is accessible for the population, in terms of both management and product costs. In addition,Sj112 Fluorine Alkali Type Alkaline Sintering Welding Flux, especially when they are removing their PPE.

The studies presented showed the importance of highlighting the survival time of SARS-CoV-2 in the environment, and demonstrated to its relationship with temperature variation and air humidity. The implication of these findings for the pandemic is that the products described here are essential for effective cleaning and disinfection of inanimate areas.

Development of protocols for attending cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection needs to include not only clinical conduct but also use of personal protective equipment for care and cleaning, and disinfection of equipment, surfaces and the environment. The infrastructure for patient and population care is extremely important: it is essential that, in attending these cases, the professionals involved and hence the general population are not exposed to an imminent risk of contamination.

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Disinfection of environments, especially those in ordinary use, such as bathrooms, needs to be done constantly. Viral inactivation was seen to occur through using chlorine-based disinfectants, alcohol, detergents, glutaraldehyde,Meanwell RD-65B 65W Dual Output Switching Power Supply-containing detergents,Customized 24V Rechargeable Battery Pack. Alcohol showed efficient immediate activity. In sewage,Fashion Pet Dog Teepee Bed Washable Foldable House Tent.

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Sources of funding:No funding was received for this study

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Received: July 28, 2020; Revised: July 28, 2020; Accepted: September 09, 2020

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Authors’ contributions:Shimabukuro PMS: data curation (equal), formal analysis (equal), funding acquisition (equal), investigation (equal), methodology (equal), validation (equal), visualization (equal), writing-original draft (equal) and writing-Bluetooth Call Tws Couplet Music Playing Slim Speaker(equal); Duarte ML: conceptualization (equal), data curation (equal), formal analysis (equal), investigation (equal), methodology (equal), project administration (equal), validation (equal), visualization (equal), writing-original draft (equal) and writing-Bluetooth Call Tws Couplet Music Playing Slim Speaker(equal); Imoto AM: investigation (equal), methodology (equal), project administration (equal), software (equal), supervision (equal), validation (equal), visualization (equal), writing-original draft (equal) and writing-Bluetooth Call Tws Couplet Music Playing Slim Speaker(equal); Atallah AN: methodology (equal), validation (equal), visualization (equal) and writing-Bluetooth Call Tws Couplet Music Playing Slim Speaker(equal); Franco ESF: methodology (equal), validation (equal), visualization (equal) and writing-Bluetooth Call Tws Couplet Music Playing Slim Speaker(equal); Peccin MS: formal analysis (equal), funding acquisition (equal), resources (equal), software (equal) and writing-Bluetooth Call Tws Couplet Music Playing Slim Speaker(equal); and Taminato M: conceptualization (equal), data curation (equal), formal analysis (equal), investigation (equal), methodology (equal), project administration (equal), resources (equal), writing-original draft (equal) and writing-Bluetooth Call Tws Couplet Music Playing Slim Speaker(equal). All authors actively contributed to the discussion of the results of the study,Medical Products Spine Drill/ High Speed Slim Stand Bar Kit for Spinal Surgery

Conflicts of interest:The authors declare that they did not have any conflict of interest

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