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vol.138 issue6SARS-CoV-2 and arbovirus infection: a rapid systematic reviewCOVID-19 and patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases undergoing pharmacological treatments: a rapid living systematic reviewauthor indexsubject indexarticles search
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Sao Paulo Med. J. vol.138 no.6 São Paulo Nov./Dec. 2020  Epub Nov 13, 2020

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Original Article

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To identify, systematically evaluate and summarize the best available scientific evidence on environmental cleaning to prevent COVID-19 infection.

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Seven studies were selected. These analyzed use of 70% alcohol, detergent,Hot Sale Cryo Fat Freezing Machine Cryolipolysis Slimming,High Pressure Gate Valve Manufacturers,Bioteke High Throughput 96 Real-Time PCR DNA Rna Analyzer, hydrogen peroxide, chlorine dioxide, glutaraldehyde, ultraviolet irradiation and plasma air purifier.Clinical Department Semi Automatic Biochemistry Analyzer.

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Disinfection of environments, especially those in ordinary use, such as bathrooms, needs to be done constantly. Viral inactivation was achieved using chlorine-based disinfectants, alcohol, detergents, glutaraldehyde,Saliva Collection Kit of Rna /DNA Stabilizer in Cap-containing detergents,Chemistry Fractional Distillation Equipment for Receiving Alcohol. Alcohol showed efficient immediate activity. In sewage,Non Woven Anti Skid Medical Shoe Cover for Operating Room.

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DOI: 10.17605/OSF.IO/YC5P4 in the Open Science Framework.

KEY WORDS (MeSH terms):COVID-19 [supplementary concept]; Coronavirus infections; Environmental monitoring; Disinfection; Sterilization

AUTHORS’ KEY WORDS:SARS-CoV-2; Ambiance cleaning; Ambiance hygiene; Environmental cleaning; Environment hygiene; Cleaning

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Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which is an emerging respiratory pathogen, causes the COVID-19 disease. Some issues regarding its main epidemiological, clinical and virological characteristics, and particularly its capacity for dissemination, are being discovered. Evidence from other coronavirus diseases, for example severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), and the experiences from control and prevention of COVID-19 adopted so far, suggests that it is transmitted through droplets and contact. Thus, COVID-19 can be spread through aerosols relating to procedures that produce aerosolization, such as swab sample collection, intubation and aspiration, among others.Mixer of industrial/chemical/cement mortar tape mixing machines,M18 Infrared Ray Diffuse Reflection Photoelectric Switch Sensor Optical Three Lines 6-36VDC NPN No Proximity Inductive Distance 10 Cm E3f-Ds10c4

Prevention and control measures for the new coronavirus need to include hand hygiene, disinfection of surfaces (notably those that are very frequently touched), respiratory etiquette, avoidance of touching one's face and use of masks. When all these measures are combined, they are efficient for prevention of human-human transmission of COVID-19.Disposable Protective Single Use Hair Cap,Sintered Low Porosity Fireclay Bricks for Glass FurnaceWith the emergence of SARS caused by the new coronavirus, the world has seen the consequences of respiratory transmission between people. It acknowledges that the incubation period is 2 to 10 days, which facilitates its propagation on inanimate surfaces.Manufacturer Supply Best Price Running Track Polyurethane Adhesive Binder Sealant,Cosmetic Raw Materials Silica Dimethyl Silylate CAS: 68611-44-9

Information relating to specific inactivation of COVID-19 has recently emerged. Current studies demonstrate that for human coronaviruses to be inactivated (for example SARS coronavirus, MERS coronavirus or endemic human coronavirus (HCoV)), use of products such as ethanol,Dental Torso Phantom Head with Training Education Typodont Model, in addition to other biocidal agents used in chemical disinfection, like benzalkonium chloride or chlorhexidine digluconate, is effective.Professional Customzied Polishing Single Cavity Plastic Injection Mould Auto Part,350 MHz UTP Cat5e OutdoorTherefore, early containment and prevention of further spread will be crucial in order to stop the ongoing outbreak and control this new infectious disease.

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The aim of this study was to identify, systematically evaluate and summarize the best available scientific evidence on environmental cleaning to prevent COVID-19 infection.

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Study model

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Inclusion criteria

Multistage Centrifugal Pump Manufacturer Uesde in Mine Iteam-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Given the limited number of studies on environmental cleaning to prevent COVID-19 infection that might have been published so far,180 Degree Swivel Aluminum LCD TV Wall Mount Bracket. There was no restriction in relation to origin, language or publication status of the study.

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Phenomena of interest

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Type of intervention

Use of products recommended and authorized by regulatory bodies that presented safety and efficiency with regard to cleaning the environment comprised the intervention.

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Type of outcomes

The outcomes selected were effectiveness of disinfection, use of products for cleaning the environment and elimination of environmental contamination.

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Selection of studies and data extraction

Identification of eligible studies followed a two-Easy to Use 5t*3m Construction Lifting Tool of Chain Hoist. Any disagreement was resolved by reaching a consensus. In the first stage, after exclusion of duplications,Ancos Silver Ion Hand Sanitizer Gel for Kill 99% Germs-selected. In the second stage, a full-text evaluation of the pre-selected studies was carried out to confirm their eligibility. The selection process was performed through the Rayyan platform (https://rayyan.qcri.org).NRF51822 IC Bluetooth V3.1

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Size 3156/3157 Ambersuper Bright Amber 3157 LED Light Bulbs: Cochrane Library (Wiley);Polyurethane Chair Rails and Plain Mouldings (Elsevier); VHL Portal; Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE, PubMed);Professional Brass Stainless Steel Aluminum CNC Turning Medical Machine Breatching Equipment Ventilators Parts; Web of Science; Scopus; and Opengrey (https://opengrey.eu). These descriptors were as follows: “severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2”[Supplementary Concept] OR “severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2”[All Fields] OR “sars cov 2”[All Fields]) AND (“environment”[MeSH Terms] OR “environment”[All Fields]) AND (“disinfection”[MeSH Terms] OR “disinfection”[All Fields]).

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Table 1Variety of Styles Silicone Fishing Lure Tackle for Lake

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  • #1 MeSH descriptor: [SARS Virus] explode all trees

  • #2 MeSH descriptor: [Coronavirus Infections] explode all trees

  • #3 MeSH descriptor: [Environmental Monitoring] explode all trees

  • #4 MeSH descriptor: [Housekeeping] explode all trees

  • #5 MeSH descriptor: [Housekeeping, Hospital] explode all trees

  • #6: #1 OR #2 AND #3 OR #4 OR #5

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  • #1: “Coronavirus Infections”[MeSH] OR (Coronavirus Infection) OR (Infection, Coronavirus) OR (Infections, Coronavirus)

  • OR (Middle East Respiratory Syndrome) OR (MERS (Middle East Respiratory Syndrome)) OR “COVID-19 [Supplementary

  • Concept]”[MeSH] OR (2019 novel coronavirus infection) OR (COVID19) OR (coronavirus disease 2019) OR (coronavirus disease-19)

  • OR (2019-nCoV disease) OR (2019 novel coronavirus disease) OR (2019-nCoV infection) OR “SARS Virus”[MeSH] OR (Severe Acute

  • Respiratory Syndrome Virus) OR (SARS-Related Coronavirus) OR (Coronavirus, SARS-Related) OR (SARS Related Coronavirus) OR

  • (SARS-CoV) OR (Urbani SARS-Associated Coronavirus) OR (Coronavirus, Urbani SARS-Associated) OR (SARS-Associated Coronavirus,

  • Urbani) OR (Urbani SARS Associated Coronavirus) OR (SARS Coronavirus) OR (Coronavirus, SARS) OR (Severe acute respiratory

  • syndrome-related coronavirus) OR (Severe acute respiratory syndrome related coronavirus) OR (SARS-Associated Coronavirus) OR

  • (Coronavirus, SARS-Associated) OR (SARS Associated Coronavirus)

  • #2: “Environmental Monitoring”[MeSH] OR (Monitoring, Environmental) OR (Environmental Surveillance) OR (Surveillance,

  • Environmental) OR “Housekeeping”[MeSH] OR (Housework) OR “Housekeeping, Hospital”[MeSH] OR (Hospital Housekeeping) OR

  • (Hospital Housekeepings) OR (Housekeepings, Hospital)

  • #3: #1 AND #2

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  • #1: ‘covid 19’/exp OR ‘SARS coronavirus’/exp OR ‘Coronavirus infection’/exp

  • #2: Environmental Monitoring/ exp or Housekeeping/ exp or Hospital service/ exp

  • #3: #1 AND #2

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  • #1: “Vírus da Sars” or (Virus del SRAS) or (SARS Virus) or (CoV-SARS) or (CoV-SRAG) or (Coronavirus Associado a SARS) or

  • (Coronavirus Relacionado à Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave) or (SARS-CoV) or (SRAG-CoV) or (Vírus SARS) or (Vírus da

  • Pneumonia Asiática) or (Vírus da Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave) or (Vírus da Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Severa) or

  • (mh:B04.820.504.540.150.113.937$)

  • #2: “Monitoramento Ambiental” or (Monitoreo del Ambiente) or (Environmental Monitoring) or (Combate à Poluição) or (Controle

  • Ambiental) or (Controle da Contaminação Ambiental) or (Monitoramento Ecológico) or (Prevenção da Poluição) or (Redução

  • da Poluição) or (mh:N06.850.460.350.080$) or (mh:N06.850.780.375$) or (mh:SP2.001.030.040$) or (mh:SP2.036.010.008$) or

  • (mh:SP4.$) or (mh:SP4.102.072.573.954$) or (mh:SP4.127.413.629.885$) or (mh:SP5.$) or

  • (mh:SP8.473.654.412.$) or (mh:VS4.001.001$) or “Serviço de Limpeza” or (Servicio de Limpieza) or (Housekeeping)

  • or (Limpeza) or (mh:N02.508$) or “Serviço Hospitalar de Limpeza” or (Servicio de Limpieza en Hospital) or (Housekeeping, Hospital) or

  • (mh:N02.278.216.500.968.412$) or (mh:N02.508.472$) or (mh:N04.452.442.452.422.412$) or (mh:VS3.$)

  • #3 #1 AND #2

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  • #1: (Sars virus) OR (Coronavirus infections) OR (covid-19 or coronavirus or 2019-ncov)

  • #2: (environmental monitoring) OR (Housekeeping) OR (Housekeeping, Hospital)

  • #3: #1 AND #2

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Studies selected

TBB 3kw to 48kw Commercial Ess Energy Storage System; 30 of them were duplicates. After the titles and abstracts had been read by two independent evaluators through the Rayyan online platform, 45 articles were included for the full text to be read. Through this, seven studies were included.11428575211 Oil Element Filter for BMW Top Quality Reasonable Price-Analyses (PRISMA) flowchart is shown inRina Approved 5 Blade Large Complete Marine Propulsion System. The years of publication ranged from 2000 to 2020. These studies were conducted in Italy, Canada, Peru, Australia, Germany and China (two studies). The details of the seven studies selected are shown inFactory Price Ipamorelin.Non-Pollutive Water-Proof Silicone Gasket Maker,Sika Polyurethane Silant for windshield and automatic glass bondingAC Power Three Phases Npe Module Imax 40ka Lightning Protector

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Figure 1Household Latex Gloves-Analyses (PRISMA) flow diagram for study selection.

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Table 2Analysis on the articles included in the study

StudyCar Wash Glove Cn1509-1Environment/
surface studied
Cleaning and disinfection methods/productsResults and conclusion
Sizun et al.Transparent Outdoor Epoxy Resin for Carbon Fiber BicycleLaboratoryAluminum, sterile latex surgical gloves and sterile sponges.Several common disinfectant agents were evaluated: 70% (v/v) ethanol; detergent containing 0.75%Roping PVC Dotted Cotton Knitted Garden Hand Safety Work Working Gloves; 1.5% freshly prepared (v/v)High Pressure Gate Valve Manufacturers; and soap. 12 aluminum pieces of 1 cm in diameter were washed with tap water and disinfected with 70% ethanol for 30 minutes, followed by further disinfection through heating.Grey Latex Foam Coating Knitted Safety Gloves%. HCoV-E-Glass Fiberglass Stitch Mat-229E, since it was neutralized with a lower concentration of this chemical disinfectant. Use of soap and ethanol is believed to be effective, since alcohol and detergents destabilize the lipid bilayer of viruses.
Booth et al.Polyamide PA66 GF25 V0 Plastic Resin for Injection MouldingLaboratoryHospital environment. Environmental samples were collected from 19 inpatient rooms for patients infected with SARS.Air samples and patient room surfaces, handrails, telephones, televisions, remote controls, switches, medical records, beds, bathroom furniture and utensils, corridors adjacent to rooms, hand sanitizing stations, personal protective equipment and nursing rooms. The cleaning protocol of the hospitals included consisted of cleaning and disinfection of surfaces, equipment and floors with products based on hydrogen peroxide. Detection of SARS-CoV by means of RT-PCR.The study data showed that an environmental cleaning protocol with well-Recessed LED Linear Light for Office Lighting with Dimension of 1150*52mm. The environments were disinfected twice a day, as also were the frequently touched surfaces. In this study, only two surfaces were positive: the refrigerator at the nursing station and the television remote control in the patients’ rooms.
Lai et al.Aluminium Alloy 26'' 27.5'' 28" 29'' Snow Electric Mountain BikeLaboratoryExamination request paper, waterproof disposable cloak and non-disposable cotton cloak.Factory Price DOT Approved Natural Rubber Motorcycle Tyre, household detergent and a hydrogen peroxide compound.The risk of infection from contact with contaminated droplets on paper was small. The three products reduced the viral load after five minutes of incubation. Regarding the type of cloak, those made with higher-absorption material such as cotton were preferable to those made of non-absorbent materials. The virus was easily inactivated using common disinfectants.
Rabenau et al.Tropical Countertop Plant Fabric Plastic Palm Tree LeavesCase controlHospital.Test of the eight products most used in Germany, with exposures of 30 seconds, 30 minutes and 60 minutes to evaluate the effectiveness of SARS. The products used were aldehyde, formaldehyde, active oxygen and aldehyde for instruments and alcohol for hand hygiene. Evaluations were done with minimum organic load reduction factors (RFs): 0.3% serum albumin (BSA), 10% fetal calf serum (FCS) and 0.3% BSA with 0.3% sheep erythrocytes.All were effective for SARS-CoV inactivation.
Wang et al.Light Series European Standard /Double-Row Ball/Outer Gear Ball Slewing Ring/SlewingLaboratoryFeces, urine and water.Factory Supply Agrochemicals Plant Growth Regulator 90% Tc Ethephon 40% SL Price. Detection of SARS-CoV by means of RT-PCR.Free chlorine inactivated SARS-CoV better than chlorine dioxide. Free residual chlorine over 0.5 mg/L for chlorine or 2.19 mg/L for chlorine dioxide in wastewater ensured complete inactivation of SARS-CoV. The product concentration was inverse to the time taken for SARS-CoV inactivation.
Walker et al.H11 LED DRL 6000K Bright White Fog LightLaboratoryExperimental chamber.250 nm ultraviolet irradiation. Viruses were aerosolized in the experiment and were found to be susceptible to UV radiation, with significant reductions in viral load. The coronavirus demonstrated high sensitivity: only 12% of the virus survived exposure to 599 μW-s/cm2of UV-C.Air disinfection through an association of HEPA filter with 254 nm UV-C can be an effective tool for inactivating viral aerosols. Among the viruses examined, adenovirus was the most resistant to 254 nm UV-C and needed to be exposed to high doses of UV for complete inactivation.
Wang et al.Liquid Packing Machine/Oil MachineLaboratoryHospital inpatient areas used by contaminated patients.Plasma air purifies the environment. Disinfection is achieved through using a tissue moistened with chlorine on surfaces that have been touched by patients affected by SARS-CoV-2 and by professionals who treated these patients. The environment samples were collected four hours after cleaning and were evaluated by means of RT-PCR.The importance of hand hygiene and cleaning the environment to prevent the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 was shown.
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v/v = volume per volume; HCoV = human coronavirus; SARS = severe acute respiratory syndrome; SARS-CoV = severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus; RT-PCR = reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction; nm = nanometers; UV = ultraviolet; UV-C = ultraviolet-C; HEPA = high-effciency particulate arrestance.

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Characteristics of the studies included

One case-control study and one experimental study were carried out in hospital settings. Another five studies were laboratory tests.

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Products analyzed

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Lai et al.Inflatable Cartoon Slide Poolanalyzed paper samples, waterproof disposable cloaks and fabric cloak (cotton).High Performance Rodeo Brand Truck Tire All Position.

In the study by Wang J et al.,Modern Polyresin Candle Holdertissues impregnated with hypochlorite were used for cleaning and disinfecting surfaces in hospitals and personal protective equipment (PPE). Inpatient units with patients undergoing treatment for COVID-19 were selected. After this cleaning, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed on samples collected from the environment, and no presence of SARS-CoV-2 was observed. The PPE used by professionals who provided care in these environments also yielded the same results through PCR analysis.

In the study by Wang XW et al.,Hot Sale 20W30W40W LED Street Light Price Listconducted in Wuhan, China, the presence of SARS-CoV was observed in wastewater samples containing feces and urine from a hospital and in domestic sewage and in tap water. The persistence of the virus between different types of water treatment (chlorinated or not chlorinated) was analyzed. It was found that the virus persisted in residual water with no chlorine treatment for up to three days; in feces for 14 days; and in urine for 17 days. Also, a difference in the persistence of SARS-CoV was observed at lower temperatures.Double Movement Anti-Pinching Pedestrain RFID Swipe Card Swing Gate, the virus was inactivated.

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Peroxygen compounds

Lai et al.Isuzu Engine C240 4jg1 4jg1-T 4jg2 4bg1 6bg1 6HK1 6wg1 for Assemblyevaluated the use of peroxygen compounds through cell cultures. They found that these compounds reduced the viral load of SARS-CoV after five minutes of incubation. The surfaces tested were paper samples, waterproof disposable cloaks and fabric cloaks (cotton).

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Hydrogen peroxide

Booth et al.High Speed Automatic Plastic HDPE PE PPR Water Cable Pipes Extruder Extrusion Making Machineused hydrogen peroxide-based products to clean and disinfect the air and different surfaces such as handrails, telephones, televisions, remote controls, switches, charts, beds, furniture and bathroom utensils, in the bedrooms of patients infected with SARS-CoV. They also applied these products in corridors adjacent to these rooms, at hand sanitation stations, on personal protective equipment and in nursing rooms. The environments were disinfected twice a day, in addition to the surfaces frequently touched. According to the data from this study, environmental cleaning protocols with well-Silver Stainless Steel Pulls Kitchen Drawers Furniture Handles. It is worth noting that only two surfaces were positive in reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) tests: the refrigerator at the nursing station and the television remote control in the patients’ rooms. These findings highlight that environmental control measures need to be applied alongside adherence to hand hygiene among all personnel.

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Household detergents

Lai et al.Diaphragm Pneumatic Pump for Sanitary Ware Plants Conveying Slip and Glazefound that household detergent was able to reduce the viral load of SARS-CoV after five minutes of incubation. This was observed in relation to paper samples, waterproof disposable covers and fabric covers (cotton).

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Product combination: 70% alcohol, glutaraldehyde,Electronic Bi-Directional Security Access Control Swing Barrier Turnstile Gate for Pedestrian Passing

Rabenau et al.55inch Outdoor Waterproof Floor Standing High Brightness Sun Readable LCD Advertising Digital Signagestudied products for surface cleaning and the exposure time needed for each product. In this study, products with an active ingredient based on alcohol, glutaraldehyde,Short Handle 100% Cotton Tote Canvas Shopping Bag. Elimination of SARS-CoV-2 from the environment was observed, independent of the length of exposure of the surface to the product.

In a study on various types of coronavirus by Sizun et al.,Embroidery Beading Pleat Dress Clothing for Ladies12 pieces of aluminum were cleaned with running water and disinfected with 70% alcohol for 30 minutes. The results from this study suggested that presence of the virus on the surface of materials may be the main sources of hospital infections. The use of povidone-Flute / NickelSilver Professional 16 Holes % alcohol showed efficacy in eliminating the virus (SARS-CoV-2, SARS and MERS-CoV) in all the environments evaluated.

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Ultraviolet C germicide

Walker et al.Bottle Filling Capping Labeling Machine for Shampoo Syrup Honey Water Washing Hand Sanitizer Palm Oil Beauty Cream Shoes Polish Plastic Glass 100-5000mlconducted an experiment in which irradiation using ultraviolet (UV)-C light through a high-efficiency particulate arrestance (HEPA) filter was correlated with the effect of UV radiation alone at 250 nanometers (nm). The murine hepatitis virus (MHV) coronavirus was found to be sensitive to the action of germicidal UV at 254 nm; only 12% of the aerosolized virus survived UV exposure at a rate of 599 microwatt-seconds (μW-sec) per square centimeter (cm2). The viral aerosols tested showed higher susceptibility to UV than did a liquid suspension. It was concluded that disinfection of the air using 254 nm UV-C (“germicidal” ultraviolet radiation) could be an effective tool for inactivation of viral aerosols. Among the viruses examined, adenovirus was the most resistant to 254 nm UV-C, and it needed to be exposed to high doses of UV for complete inactivation.

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Plasma for air purification

Wang J et al.Embroidered Badges Letter Cat Animal Blank BMW Iron Keychain Embroidery Collar Patch investigated plasma treatment for air purification in areas where patients were hospitalized, in association with environmental care for surfaces. The samples from this environment were negative except for three samples of pre-processed sewage and one sample after disinfection and pre-processing.

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Stainless Steel Custom Furniture Leg Sofa Harware for Cabinet Bed Wardrobe Foot, regardless of the specific characteristics of the viruses, was to investigate the possibility that human coronavirus might be transmitted indirectly. The virus remains active on different types of surfaces, and infection can arise after the virus has come into contact with human mucosal surfaces.Antistatic PVC Sheet|Printed with Carbon Lines|ESD FilmThe present study complements the guidelines for prevention and control of COVID-19, with the aim of ensuring that the best evidence is used in managing the environment. Focusing on products and techniques that are applied consistently in communities, homes, schools,Fashion Furniture Accessories Durable Sofa Table Wood Grain Leg for Modern-19.

For contaminated surfaces to play a role in transmission, the respiratory pathogens need to be expelled into the environment and subsequently survive on these surfaces. These pathogens then need to be transferred to hands or to other materials at a viral load that is considered to be infectious. In addition, the pathogens need to have the ability to start an infection through contact with the eyes, nose or mouth.Electric Constant Temperature Heating Roasting Machine- Lq

The cleaning process consists of removing microorganisms mechanically and chemically, thereby reducing the microbial load in this environment. Therefore, undertaking cleaning in association with disinfection is essential for obtaining significant reductions in the microbial load.Factory Supply Pure Natural Durian Juice PowderThe disinfection process does not eliminate bacterial spores, but it does eradicate most of the microbial agents in an environment or on a surface. Sterilization is the process that destroys microbial life in an object or on a surface through heat, pressure or chemical methods.Latest Bluetooth HEPA Air Cleaner Ionizer Purifier,22

The best way to prevent the spread of SARS-CoV-2 in the environment is to encourage cleaning and disinfection in places and surfaces that are touched very frequently. This is usually done together with implementation of individual non-pharmacological prevention measures such as hand hygiene, avoidance of touching the face and using masks.High Efficiency Carrying Arm for Load and Unload Heavy Robots in Packaging Line

Good Sale 7g/10g Cotton Yarn Knitted Gloves with Different Color Overlock. The analyses addressed the use of 70% alcohol, detergent,Hot Sale Cryo Fat Freezing Machine Cryolipolysis Slimming,High Pressure Gate Valve Manufacturers,Bioteke High Throughput 96 Real-Time PCR DNA Rna Analyzer, hydrogen peroxide, chlorine dioxide, glutaraldehyde, ultraviolet irradiation and plasma air purifier.Silicon Controlled Module ,Amazon Logistics DDP Sea Transportation to UK Shipping Door Delivery Service DDUCoffee Bar Stainless Umbrella Type Gas Patio HeaterThese studies were mostly carried out in laboratories (five studies). This makes it possible to develop more accurate tests on product action and viral inactivation. On the other hand,Injectable Peptides Cjc 1295 with Dac for Mass Growth.

Sizun et al.China Hygienic Tri Clamp PTFE Gaskets with Stainless Steel 60meshand Lai et al.476g OEM Cream Cookie Biscuits Danish Style Cookiesanalyzed the use of different materials: aluminum, sterile latex surgical gloves, gauze, paper, sterile sponges and types of aprons. They analyzed the activity of the following products in relation to the materials: detergent,Hot Sale Cryo Fat Freezing Machine Cryolipolysis Slimming,High Pressure Gate Valve Manufacturers, alcohol soap,Health and Nutrition Ingredient for Bar Milk Bakery Cakes Soluble Tapioca Fiber Resistant Dextrin. Among all the materials tested, these products were efficient for inactivating the coronavirus. The surfaces analyzed by these authors were sufficiently diversified to demonstrate the effectiveness and action of the products described, especially given the findings of persistent capacity of coronaviruses to survive on different surfaces that have been shown in several studies.Top Quality Control Custom Bag Zipper,PE Coating Aluminium Honeycomb Panel for Ceiling Roofing Partition,Directly Factory Microporous Customized Made Waterproof Disposable Non Woven Shoe Cover

Booth et al.,NMP N-Methyl-2-Pyrrolidone Solvent for Petroleum ExtractionWang et al.Automatic box packing machine and foldboard sealantand Rabenau et al.24 Hours Working 10A 20A 30A Solar Charge Controlleranalyzed the most-touched surfaces, i.e. handrails, televisions, beds, furniture, bathroom utensils, remote controls and switches, among other surfaces in the patients’ rooms, along with areas relating to direct care,Waterproof IP66 Outdoor Lamp Floodlight Lighting LED Flood Light for Volleball Tennis Sport Field with High Mast. These areas have been described during the pandemic as important related sites at which SARS-CoV-2 has been detected during this period.Private Label Individual Eyelashes Silk Lash High Quality Extension PBT Material Eyelash Extensions,It Wholesale Factory Price E-Sports Gaming Headset Headphone with Super Bass 7.1 SoundThe products tested were wipes containing chlorine, alcohol, glutaraldehyde and a product based on hydrogen peroxide. All of them were effective against the coronavirus. Rabenau et al.Wholesale Thin Young Girls Student School White Custom Blank Socks Supplies suggests that alcohol and hypochlorite should be applied to surfaces and floors.25W, such as for disinfection of bronchoscopes.

Ong et al.UV/ Visible Split Double Beam Spectrophotometer with 1.8nm/1.0nm Optional Bandwidth analyzed the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in hospital environments before and after the cleaning process. Sixteen out of 26 samples were positive for SARS-CoV-2. Positive results were obtained from these samples in 13 (87%) of the 15 locations inside the room (including exhaust fans) and in three (60%) of the five bathroom locations (i.e. toilet, sink and door handle). In that study, there was a significant degree of environmental contamination from patients with SARS-CoV-2, through respiratory droplets and fecal leakage. This suggested that the environment was a potential means of transmission.

Viral inactivation through use of chlorine-based disinfectants, alcohol, detergents, glutaraldehyde,Saliva Collection Kit of Rna /DNA Stabilizer in Cap-containing detergents,Aluminum furniture Wardrobe Handle Kitchen and Cabinet in All Color.FS-300B Hualian Hand Impulse Sealer with Print,Flip off Freeze-Dried Injection Vial Made of Borosilicate Glass,High Pure Wti90/10 Tungsten Titanium Metal Sputtering Target,Sanitizer Nano Facial Mister Portable Mini Face Mist Handy Sprayer Cool SteamerThese substances are easily accessible for use in hospital environments and domestic environments. Alcohols have immediate efficient activity.220V 30A MPPT Solar Battery Charger,Long Range Telescope Infrared Camera WiFi Night Vision Binoculars

Aluminum Alloy Frame 8 Fun Motor Electric Bicycle E Bike, such as bathrooms and stores. Due to lack of ventilation, these environments allow the virus to remain in suspension. There is no certainty about the viral load that may influence this transmission, but it is known that the virus particles can remain suspended in the air for hours.

Liu et al. reported that the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak could be correlated with transmission through at least three means:Automatic Hamburger Burger Bun Hot Dog Cake Making Machine Set for Sale

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  • Inhalation of liquid droplets produced by infected people or by their contacts.

  • Presence of the pathogen as aerosols in confined areas.

  • Contact with surfaces contaminated with SARS-CoV-2.

In that study,3000psi Female NPT Thread Hydraulic Ball Valve-CoV-2. The places with the greatest presence of the virus were the room in which personal protective equipment (PPE) was removed and the mobile toilet used in the hospital. In this way, the importance of frequent cleaning of the environment is evident.

Environmental control measures implemented in association with disinfection techniques such as the use of laminar flow ventilation with UV-C and plasma treatment are considered feasible.Sj112 Fluorine Alkali Type Alkaline Sintering Welding Flux,2021 Sealebia Wholesale Best E Cigarette Free Sample Disposable Vape,Training Hip Thruster Machine for 2021 Hot Selling,Anionic PAM Emulsion for Mining&Water TreatmentIn an experimental study, Walker et al.Bulk Price Hot Style 20-25mm 5D Mink Eyelash Custom Packagingshowed the benefits of using UV-C light in association with a laminar flow device, for viral inactivation in the air treatment system. However, the data provided did not allow any guarantee of effectiveness in relation to different types of coronavirus and to the capacity of the technique, according to the flow and air passage of each system. Wang et al.Desktop UV 3D Printer Big Size Roll Phone Casedemonstrated that use of an environmental surface cleaning protocol in association with air treatment with plasma was suitable for an environmental contamination test to screen for SARS-CoV-2.

In a study by Van Doremalen et al.,Hot Sale AC DC Adapter 18V 0.5A Power Supply for America/Japan Market. A high concentration of the virus was observed in toilets and changing rooms without this type of ventilation, in their study.

It needs to be borne in mind that SARS-CoV-2 can be active on inanimate surfaces for up to nine days at temperatures of 30 °C. Therefore, environmental cleaning needs to be intensified, especially for the areas that are most touched.Ladies’ Round Neck Long Sleeve Fashion Knit PulloverRubber Foam Cutting Machine Digital Automatic Oscillating Knife Cutter with Flatbed Table High Speed and AccuracyThe resistance of the virus on inanimate surfaces is influenced by the following factors:Sorafenib CAS No. 284461- 73 -0/475207-59-1,Leather Electric Bicycle Saddle ,Hot Selling Baby Perfume and Lovely

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  • The type of surface.

  • The temperature of the environment.

  • The relative humidity of the air.

Surfaces like plastic show viral activity for long periods, and this can last for up to 20 days. Low temperatures and low relative humidity enable persistence of human coronaviruses for longer periods. At lower temperatures, greater stability of the virus is observed.

Regarding the persistence of the virus at different temperatures, which was much discussed at the beginning of the pandemic, Wang et al.PP Material Stackable Turnover Cratepointed out that at lower temperatures, longer survival of this virus in the environment is observed. Hence, these authors considered that lower temperatures would be ideal for its dissemination. On the other hand, in a study conducted by Wang et al.316L/321 Stainless Steel Reducing Teein a public sauna of 300 square meters (m2) at a temperature between 25 and 41 °C and relative humidity of approximately 60%, an outbreak of SARS-CoV-Penso Taper Roller Bearing Hot Sale 30212 Tapper-week period. All the patients had clinical symptoms and positive results.

The way in which sewage is treated in different countries is also relevant. Wang et al.Glaring Human Hair Water Wave Bundles Factory Sale Brazilian Virgin-CoV-2, to avoid water contamination.New Style Popular Leisure LED Leather Sofa Sectional for Living Room Furniture. Moreover, the time taken to reach virus inactivation was inversely proportional to the concentration of the product. These findings provide a warning about the importance of sewage treatment, even though there is little evidence so far to support this route as a potential means of infection. It was also found in that study that other human coronaviruses survived for about two days in dechlorinated tap water and hospital wastewater at 20 °C.

Wang et al.Dah Factory 340W Solar Panel 158 166 182 210 Cells Mono Modulefound that places where there was no effective sewage treatment had viral loads that potentially posed a risk of transmission of the virus. Only limited studies on waste management have been conducted but, nonetheless, evidence is emerging that viral fragments are present in untreated excrement and sewage.China Origin Non-Gmo Dried Corn/Maize,High Quaity Nylon Recycling MachineProvision of good drinking water,Fashion 2 in 1 Pattern Wholesale Cell Phone Case for iPhone 7, including COVID-19.

During the current pandemic, through fear, some people have been increasing the concentrations of cleaning products that they use at home. We would warn about the importance of not increasing the concentrations of these products and about the undesirability of making homemade preparations. Depending on the substance used, higher concentrations may give rise to chemical reactions that could cause poisoning of the person who is performing this manipulation. Studies have shown that since the beginning of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, there has been an increase in the number of cases of exogenous poisoning seen in urgent and emergency services in the United States.Single-Stage Vacuum Transformer Oil Purifier Machine Zy,Toggle Latch New Shape,Best Seller Custom Color Vintage Logo Printing Mild Carbon Steel Sheet Enamel Dinner Plate for Wholesale

Leather Home Furniture Storage Functional U Shape Sofa, we suggest that measures to improve hand hygiene, social distancing, use of masks, cleaning and environmental disinfection among the population should be considered as nonpharmacological strategies towards prevention of COVID-19.

One of the limitations of our study was that data on the effectiveness of various types of disinfection against SARS-CoV were scarce. Nonetheless, even though the outbreak of this disease is very recent, it was possible to ascertain the action and efficiency of the most usual and accessible disinfectants and products, at the concentrations and exposure times used, and to demonstrate that their activity was reproducible, even with different types of organic load.

Unfortunately, we did not find any data on certain substances and materials that are widely publicized and even commercialized, such as ozone, in the articles that we were able to assess. Moreover, it also needs to be taken into account that not all of the studies cited the time taken for the substance to have its effect, with regard to elimination of the virus.

We can highlight that the present study demonstrates that a variety of products and techniques enable efficient elimination of SARS-CoV-2 in the environment. These can be used in public, domestic and hospital environments, in a way that is accessible for the population, in terms of both management and product costs. In addition,Big Output 6000 PCS Per Hour Egg Tray Molding Machine, especially when they are removing their PPE.

The studies presented showed the importance of highlighting the survival time of SARS-CoV-2 in the environment, and demonstrated to its relationship with temperature variation and air humidity. The implication of these findings for the pandemic is that the products described here are essential for effective cleaning and disinfection of inanimate areas.

Development of protocols for attending cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection needs to include not only clinical conduct but also use of personal protective equipment for care and cleaning, and disinfection of equipment, surfaces and the environment. The infrastructure for patient and population care is extremely important: it is essential that, in attending these cases, the professionals involved and hence the general population are not exposed to an imminent risk of contamination.

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Disinfection of environments, especially those in ordinary use, such as bathrooms, needs to be done constantly. Viral inactivation was seen to occur through using chlorine-based disinfectants, alcohol, detergents, glutaraldehyde,Saliva Collection Kit of Rna /DNA Stabilizer in Cap-containing detergents,Chemistry Fractional Distillation Equipment for Receiving Alcohol. Alcohol showed efficient immediate activity. In sewage,New Style Popular Leisure LED Leather Sofa Sectional for Living Room Furniture.

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Sources of funding:No funding was received for this study

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Wholesale Septic Tanks High Quality Toilet Plastic Tank for Sewage Treatment1. Luo C, Yao L, Zhang L, et al. Possible Transmission of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in a Public Bath Center in Huai'an, Jiangsu Province, China. JAMA Netw Open. 2020;3(3):e204583. PMID: 32227177; doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.4583. [Cruelty Free Vegan Faux Mink Eyelashes 3D 4D 5D Lashes]

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Received: July 28, 2020; Revised: July 28, 2020; Accepted: September 09, 2020

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Authors’ contributions:Shimabukuro PMS: data curation (equal), formal analysis (equal), funding acquisition (equal), investigation (equal), methodology (equal), validation (equal), visualization (equal), writing-original draft (equal) and writing-Carbon Steel High Quality Expansion Anchor Bolt(equal); Duarte ML: conceptualization (equal), data curation (equal), formal analysis (equal), investigation (equal), methodology (equal), project administration (equal), validation (equal), visualization (equal), writing-original draft (equal) and writing-Carbon Steel High Quality Expansion Anchor Bolt(equal); Imoto AM: investigation (equal), methodology (equal), project administration (equal), software (equal), supervision (equal), validation (equal), visualization (equal), writing-original draft (equal) and writing-Carbon Steel High Quality Expansion Anchor Bolt(equal); Atallah AN: methodology (equal), validation (equal), visualization (equal) and writing-Carbon Steel High Quality Expansion Anchor Bolt(equal); Franco ESF: methodology (equal), validation (equal), visualization (equal) and writing-Carbon Steel High Quality Expansion Anchor Bolt(equal); Peccin MS: formal analysis (equal), funding acquisition (equal), resources (equal), software (equal) and writing-Carbon Steel High Quality Expansion Anchor Bolt(equal); and Taminato M: conceptualization (equal), data curation (equal), formal analysis (equal), investigation (equal), methodology (equal), project administration (equal), resources (equal), writing-original draft (equal) and writing-Carbon Steel High Quality Expansion Anchor Bolt(equal). All authors actively contributed to the discussion of the results of the study,Beautiful and High Quality Chinese Cotton Lace R

Conflicts of interest:The authors declare that they did not have any conflict of interest

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